Status Update

 I just finished two more 12-week classes last Sunday: 

    BSIT340 - Cisco Routing Fundamentals

    BSIT350 - Microsoft Networking Fundamentals

Now I'm on a 12-week summer hiatus during which I will be working on Red Hat Linux Certifications. 

This fall/winter/spring terms I will be completing my remaining course requirements and be on-track to graduate after the 2025 Spring Term! 


"The term "Kafkaesque" is used to describe concepts and situations reminiscent of Kafka's work, particularly Der Process (The Trial) and Die Verwandlung (The Metamorphosis).[278] Examples include instances in which bureaucracies overpower people, often in a surreal, nightmarish milieu that evokes feelings of senselessness, disorientation, and helplessness. Characters in a Kafkaesque setting often lack a clear course of action to escape a labyrinthine situation. Kafkaesque elements often appear in existential works, but the term has transcended the literary realm to apply to real-life occurrences and situations that are incomprehensibly complex, bizarre, or illogical." (Franz Kafka 2024)

Example: "The United States of America has been very Kafkaesque from 2020-2024."

Wikimedia Foundation. (2024g, March 28). Franz Kafka. Wikipedia.

BSIT380 - Week 12 Post - Happy Trails to You, until we meet again.

BSIT 380 - System Hardening and Network Risk Management

As my current class ends, I'd like to thank whoever took the time to read all of my blog posts that, although required for the class, were still enjoyable to research and write. The name of the class is "System Hardening and Network Risk Management", which explains all of the cybersecurity and server references throughout the blog posts. I chose to write on a variety of topics, mostly revolving around the class topics for that particular week. Internet searches with and provided most of the source material for my posts. It also helped that I have been working in the Information Technology field for the past 40 years. I hope this Blog's content was helpful to any information security professional who happens to stumble across it in my little corner of the internet. And here is a free "lesson learned" that I figured out while doing this: use to write your blog posts. Let it teach you correct spelling and grammar. First impressions count.

BSIT 380 - Week 11 Posting - What is an Incident Response?

In cybersecurity, an "incident response" refers to the organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack, also known as a security incident. The goal is to handle the situation in a way that limits damage and reduces recovery time and costs. An effective incident response plan is critical to any organization's cybersecurity strategy and includes the elements of preparation, identification, containment, eradication, and recovery.

Preparation is the foundation of incident response. It involves setting up an incident response team, defining their roles and responsibilities, and developing a response plan. Identification consists of detecting and determining whether a cybersecurity event is a security incident, which requires practical monitoring tools and awareness to recognize signs of a potential breach, such as unusual system behavior, alerts from security tools, or reports of suspicious activity. Once an incident is confirmed, the immediate goal is containment, limiting its scope and preventing further damage. After containment, the next step is to find and eradicate the incident's root cause, which may involve removing malware, deactivating breached user accounts, or fixing vulnerabilities. In recovery, affected systems are restored and returned to regular operation. This process must be carefully managed to avoid reintroducing the threat. It often includes validating systems functioning normally and monitoring for any signs of compromise.

After the incident is resolved, conducting a post-incident review is crucial,  analyzing what happened, how it was handled, what worked well, and what could be improved. The insights strengthen the incident response plan and overall security posture.

BSIT380 - Week 10 Post - Automating data enrichment at scale

 In the fast-paced realm of cybersecurity, automating data enrichment at scale is a game-changer. Data enrichment is the process of enhancing raw data with additional context and information, transforming it into a more meaningful, actionable form. In cybersecurity, this means taking vast amounts of data from diverse sources—like system logs, network traffic, security device outputs, and external threat intelligence—and augmenting it with extra layers of detail. The objective is clear: to provide deeper insights and a clearer understanding of the cyber threats lurking in the data. However, given the data's sheer volume and complexity, manually sifting through it is akin to finding a needle in a haystack. This is where automation steps in, leveraging advanced tools and technologies to process and analyze this data efficiently, ensuring that the valuable nuggets of insight are found and utilized effectively and timely.

Automating data enrichment involves several sophisticated techniques. First, it employs big data technologies like Hadoop or Spark, which can handle and process large datasets at high speeds. Machine learning and artificial intelligence play a pivotal role, too, in identifying patterns and anomalies that might indicate potential security threats—a task too intricate and vast for human analysts to perform consistently and accurately. Another critical aspect is the integration of real-time threat intelligence. This involves enriching internal data with up-to-date information about emerging threats from around the globe, adding crucial context, and aiding in quickly identifying potential risks. All of this is wrapped up in an environment that emphasizes scalability and flexibility, often leveraging cloud-based solutions to adapt to the ever-changing volume and nature of data. Ultimately, automating data enrichment in cybersecurity isn't just about handling data more efficiently; it's about staying one step ahead in a world where cyber threats evolve just as quickly as the technology we use to combat them.


Nachaj, A. (2024, January 29). Data enrichment: The holy grail of the Cybersecurity Industry. Metron Security Blogs.

BSIT380 - Week 9 Post - Fortifying Your Server Against Brute-Force Attacks: Essential Strategies

Hello, computer security nerds! Today, I'm talking about protecting your servers against brute-force attacks. These persistent threats can compromise your server's security. Here are some strategies to bolster your server's defenses:

1. Crafting a robust Password Policy
A robust password is your first line of defense. Opt for lengthy and complex passwords that mix various character types. The goal is to make them difficult to guess but still memorable. Avoid dictionary words, personal info, and recycled passwords – remember, creativity is vital.​ If possible, use lengthy passphrases which are easier to remember. And stop writing down your passwords unless you're keeping your notebook in a locked security container of some type...

2. Login Attempt Limitations
Limiting failed login attempts is crucial. Implement a system that blocks IP addresses after several unsuccessful tries. However, be cautious – you don't want to lock out legitimate users accidentally.​

3. The Art of Progressive Delays
Here's an interesting twist: Use progressive delays instead of outright account lockouts. Each failed attempt increases the wait time, frustrating potential attackers and slowing down their efforts​

4. CAPTCHA: More Than Annoying Squiggles
Integrating CAPTCHA challenges helps differentiate bots from humans. Although they can be a bit of a nuisance, they're incredibly effective against automated brute-force attempts​
5. Two-Factor Authentication: Doubling Down on Security
Adding a second layer of security, like a code sent to a mobile device, significantly enhances your protection. It's a simple yet effective barrier against brute-force attacks.​

6. Vigilant Monitoring: Keeping an Eye Out
Regularly scan your server logs. Look for patterns that suggest a brute-force attack, such as repeated failed logins from the same IP address or various addresses trying the same account​.

7. Shaking Up Defaults: Ports and Usernames
Changing default ports and admin usernames can dramatically reduce the success rate of attacks. It's a small change with a significant impact – a tactic often overlooked but highly effective.​ Just ensure you keep excellent documentation on which ports are now in use!
8. Network-Level Guardians: Firewalls and IDS/IPS
Deploy network-level security measures like firewalls and intrusion detection systems. They're your digital sentinels, guarding against suspicious traffic​​.

9. Keeping Software Up-to-Date: A Continuous Process

Last but not least, ensure all server software and applications are regularly updated with the latest security patches. Staying current is staying safe.

In Summary:
Combining these strategies forms a formidable defense against brute-force attacks. While no single method is completely foolproof, a layered approach significantly reduces risk. Stay vigilant, stay updated, and remember, the best defense is proactive.

BSIT380 - Week 8 Post - Controlling Application Execution with Whitelisting and Blacklisting

In the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity, controlling which applications can run on a network or a device is very important. It can be effectively managed through two contrasting approaches: application whitelisting and blacklisting.


Application Whitelisting: This approach involves creating a list of authorized applications permitted to run on a system. Any software not included in this whitelist is automatically blocked. This method is highly secure as it prevents unknown or potentially harmful applications from executing. However, it requires thorough knowledge of all the necessary applications for business operations. It can be restrictive, as any new application needs explicit approval before it can be used.


Application Blacklisting: In contrast, blacklisting involves creating a list of applications that are forbidden. Any application not on this blacklist is allowed to run. This method is more flexible and less resource-intensive than whitelisting, as it doesn't require a comprehensive list of all acceptable applications. However, it's less secure, as it can't block unknown threats - any new malicious software not already on the blacklist can run unhindered.


Best Practices:

  • Regular Updates: Keep the whitelist or blacklist updated with the latest application information.
  • User Training: Educate users about the risks of unauthorized applications.
  • Monitoring and Auditing: Regularly monitor application usage and audit the lists for effectiveness.
  • Balancing Security and Flexibility: Find the right balance between security (whitelisting) and flexibility (blacklisting) based on your organization's needs.

Conclusion: Both whitelisting and blacklisting have their merits and drawbacks. While whitelisting offers a more secure environment by only allowing pre-approved applications, it can be rigid and resource-intensive. Blacklisting, while more flexible, might leave systems vulnerable to new or unknown threats. The choice between them should be based on the organization's specific requirements and risk profile. Remember, effective application control is a critical component of cybersecurity strategy and should be tailored to fit the unique needs of your network environment.

BSIT380 - Week 7 Post - An article about flow analysis for cybersecurity...

The insightful blog entry "Flow Analytics for Cyber Situational Awareness" by Sid Faber, hosted on Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute's Insights blog, focuses on the critical role of network flow analytics in enhancing cybersecurity. Faber delves into how network flow analysis is a foundational tool for organizations to achieve cyber situational awareness, especially during high-stress times like the holiday season when data centers face surges in online activity. The ability to distinguish between a legitimate increase in business traffic and potential cyber threats like denial-of-service attacks hinges on understanding the intricate patterns of network flow. This understanding is vital for organizations to respond effectively to immediate challenges and predict and prepare for future cyber events.

Faber's article emphasizes the importance of a three-step model in achieving situation awareness in cybersecurity:

  • Perception or sensing of the environment
  • Comprehension of the sensed information
  • Projection of future states of the environment

This model, rooted in the work of Dr. Mica Endsley, is particularly relevant in the cyber domain, where understanding the flow of network traffic is crucial. Organizations can gain valuable insights into how their networks are utilized by analyzing network flow data, enabling them to detect anomalies and potential security threats. The article underscores the need for effective analytics presentation to decision-makers, ensuring that complex data is translated into actionable intelligence. This approach is about detecting threats and shaping a proactive cybersecurity strategy that aligns with the dynamic nature of the digital world. To read the full article, visit Sid Faber's blog post.


Faber, S. (2015, December 7). Flow analytics for cyber situational awareness. SEI Blog.


BSIT380 - Week 6 Post - Hardware best practices for securing computers

The importance of hardware-based security measures in computer systems cannot be overstated, especially in an era where digital threats are increasingly sophisticated. One fundamental best practice is the use of hardware firewalls. These act as the first defense against external attacks, efficiently filtering incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. Unlike software firewalls, which can be bypassed or compromised by malware, hardware firewalls provide a more robust and less penetrable barrier. Additionally, employing physical security measures such as locking cables and secured access to computer hardware is crucial. Physical security measures are essential in environments where sensitive data is processed, as they prevent unauthorized physical access to the hardware, an often overlooked aspect of computer security.

Equally vital is the incorporation of hardware encryption methods. Utilizing hardware for encryption, like Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) and hardware security modules (HSMs), ensures that data is encrypted and decrypted in a secure, isolated environment. TPMs minimize the risk of key exposure and make it significantly more challenging for attackers to access sensitive data. Moreover, regularly updating hardware firmware is essential. Manufacturers often release firmware updates to address vulnerabilities, and neglecting these updates can expose systems to exploits. In conclusion, while software security is indispensable, complementing it with robust hardware security practices provides a comprehensive shield against a wide array of cyber threats, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of valuable data.


BSIT380 - Week 5 Post - Best Practices for Secure Coding: Building a Strong Defense Against Cyber Threats


In today's interconnected world, the importance of secure coding cannot be overstated. With cyber threats becoming more sophisticated and prevalent, software developers play a pivotal role in safeguarding applications and systems. Adopting best practices for secure coding is not just necessary; it's a responsibility. In this blog post, we'll delve into essential practices developers can implement to strengthen the security of their code.

Thorough Input Validation

Input validation is the first defense against common vulnerabilities like SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS). Continuously validate and sanitize user inputs to ensure they meet expected criteria. Use trusted libraries or frameworks for input validation to minimize human error.

Implement Proper Authentication and Authorization

Authentication verifies the identity of users, while authorization determines their access levels. Use robust authentication methods like multi-factor authentication (MFA) and implement the principle of least privilege to restrict access to only what is necessary for each user.

Secure Password Handling

Hash passwords using strong cryptographic algorithms and add salt to defend against rainbow table attacks. Encourage users to create complex passwords and implement password policies. Avoid storing passwords in plain text or weakly encrypted forms.

Escape Output Data

When rendering data in web pages or APIs, always escape user-generated content to prevent XSS attacks. Escaping ensures that special characters are correctly encoded, making them impossible to execute as code.

Protect Against SQL Injection

Use parameterized queries or prepared statements when interacting with databases. These techniques prevent malicious input from being executed as SQL commands. Avoid dynamically constructing SQL queries with user inputs.

Secure File Uploads

If your application allows file uploads, implement strict controls to ensure that uploaded files cannot be executed as scripts. Store uploaded files in a separate directory with restricted access and use white-listing to validate file types.

Keep Software Dependencies Updated

Outdated libraries and frameworks can contain known vulnerabilities. Regularly update your dependencies and apply security patches promptly. Consider using automated tools to monitor and manage dependencies.

Implement Security Headers

To mitigate various attack vectors, utilize security headers like Content Security Policy (CSP), HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS), and X-Content-Type-Options. These headers provide an additional layer of protection against common threats.

Error Handling and Logging

Implement proper error handling to avoid exposing sensitive information to attackers. Additionally, implement secure logging practices to capture relevant security events and anomalies for analysis.

Data Encryption

Sensitive data should always be encrypted, both in transit and at rest. Use industry-standard encryption protocols like TLS for data in transit and robust encryption algorithms for data at rest.

Regular Security Testing

Incorporate security testing into your development process. Conduct code reviews, static analysis, and dynamic testing to identify vulnerabilities early. Consider leveraging automated security testing tools to streamline the process.

Secure APIs

If your application includes APIs, secure them using authentication, authorization, and rate limiting. Implement OAuth or API keys for access control and monitor API usage for suspicious activity.


Secure coding is not a one-time task; it's an ongoing commitment to protecting your applications and data. Developers can build a robust defense against cyber threats by adhering to these best practices. Remember that security is a shared responsibility, and collaboration between developers, security professionals, and stakeholders is essential to create a secure software ecosystem. Stay vigilant, stay informed, and continue to evolve your secure coding practices to stay one step ahead of potential threats.



Chapman, B., & Maymí, F. (2021). Chapter 9 - Software Assurance Best Practices. In Comptia Cysa+ Cybersecurity Analyst Certification Exam Guide (exam CS0-002). essay, McGraw Hill.


My Cybersecurity Poster that I created for my class homework....


BSIT380 - Week 4 Posting - What is Data Analytics?

Data analytics is a multifaceted field that involves the systematic computational analysis of data or statistics. It is used to discover, interpret, and communicate meaningful patterns in data. This process involves applying algorithms and statistical methods to data sets to determine trends, correlations, and patterns. In simpler terms, data analytics transforms raw data into insights to help make better decisions. This process is crucial in various domains, such as business, science, and technology, as it enables organizations and individuals to make more informed choices based on empirical evidence.

At its core, data analytics is divided into several types, including descriptive, predictive, prescriptive, and diagnostic analytics. Descriptive analytics aims to summarize past data to understand what has happened. Predictive analytics uses statistical models and forecast techniques to understand the future. Prescriptive analytics suggests actions you can take to affect desired outcomes. Diagnostic analytics focuses on discovering the causes of past outcomes. Integrating data analytics into decision-making processes leads to more efficient operations, higher business profits, and improved quality of life, making it a vital tool in today’s data-driven world.