BSIT380 - Week 8 Post - Controlling Application Execution with Whitelisting and Blacklisting

In the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity, controlling which applications can run on a network or a device is very important. It can be effectively managed through two contrasting approaches: application whitelisting and blacklisting.


Application Whitelisting: This approach involves creating a list of authorized applications permitted to run on a system. Any software not included in this whitelist is automatically blocked. This method is highly secure as it prevents unknown or potentially harmful applications from executing. However, it requires thorough knowledge of all the necessary applications for business operations. It can be restrictive, as any new application needs explicit approval before it can be used.


Application Blacklisting: In contrast, blacklisting involves creating a list of applications that are forbidden. Any application not on this blacklist is allowed to run. This method is more flexible and less resource-intensive than whitelisting, as it doesn't require a comprehensive list of all acceptable applications. However, it's less secure, as it can't block unknown threats - any new malicious software not already on the blacklist can run unhindered.


Best Practices:

  • Regular Updates: Keep the whitelist or blacklist updated with the latest application information.
  • User Training: Educate users about the risks of unauthorized applications.
  • Monitoring and Auditing: Regularly monitor application usage and audit the lists for effectiveness.
  • Balancing Security and Flexibility: Find the right balance between security (whitelisting) and flexibility (blacklisting) based on your organization's needs.

Conclusion: Both whitelisting and blacklisting have their merits and drawbacks. While whitelisting offers a more secure environment by only allowing pre-approved applications, it can be rigid and resource-intensive. Blacklisting, while more flexible, might leave systems vulnerable to new or unknown threats. The choice between them should be based on the organization's specific requirements and risk profile. Remember, effective application control is a critical component of cybersecurity strategy and should be tailored to fit the unique needs of your network environment.

BSIT380 - Week 7 Post - An article about flow analysis for cybersecurity...

The insightful blog entry "Flow Analytics for Cyber Situational Awareness" by Sid Faber, hosted on Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute's Insights blog, focuses on the critical role of network flow analytics in enhancing cybersecurity. Faber delves into how network flow analysis is a foundational tool for organizations to achieve cyber situational awareness, especially during high-stress times like the holiday season when data centers face surges in online activity. The ability to distinguish between a legitimate increase in business traffic and potential cyber threats like denial-of-service attacks hinges on understanding the intricate patterns of network flow. This understanding is vital for organizations to respond effectively to immediate challenges and predict and prepare for future cyber events.

Faber's article emphasizes the importance of a three-step model in achieving situation awareness in cybersecurity:

  • Perception or sensing of the environment
  • Comprehension of the sensed information
  • Projection of future states of the environment

This model, rooted in the work of Dr. Mica Endsley, is particularly relevant in the cyber domain, where understanding the flow of network traffic is crucial. Organizations can gain valuable insights into how their networks are utilized by analyzing network flow data, enabling them to detect anomalies and potential security threats. The article underscores the need for effective analytics presentation to decision-makers, ensuring that complex data is translated into actionable intelligence. This approach is about detecting threats and shaping a proactive cybersecurity strategy that aligns with the dynamic nature of the digital world. To read the full article, visit Sid Faber's blog post.


Faber, S. (2015, December 7). Flow analytics for cyber situational awareness. SEI Blog.


BSIT380 - Week 6 Post - Hardware best practices for securing computers

The importance of hardware-based security measures in computer systems cannot be overstated, especially in an era where digital threats are increasingly sophisticated. One fundamental best practice is the use of hardware firewalls. These act as the first defense against external attacks, efficiently filtering incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. Unlike software firewalls, which can be bypassed or compromised by malware, hardware firewalls provide a more robust and less penetrable barrier. Additionally, employing physical security measures such as locking cables and secured access to computer hardware is crucial. Physical security measures are essential in environments where sensitive data is processed, as they prevent unauthorized physical access to the hardware, an often overlooked aspect of computer security.

Equally vital is the incorporation of hardware encryption methods. Utilizing hardware for encryption, like Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) and hardware security modules (HSMs), ensures that data is encrypted and decrypted in a secure, isolated environment. TPMs minimize the risk of key exposure and make it significantly more challenging for attackers to access sensitive data. Moreover, regularly updating hardware firmware is essential. Manufacturers often release firmware updates to address vulnerabilities, and neglecting these updates can expose systems to exploits. In conclusion, while software security is indispensable, complementing it with robust hardware security practices provides a comprehensive shield against a wide array of cyber threats, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of valuable data.


BSIT380 - Week 5 Post - Best Practices for Secure Coding: Building a Strong Defense Against Cyber Threats


In today's interconnected world, the importance of secure coding cannot be overstated. With cyber threats becoming more sophisticated and prevalent, software developers play a pivotal role in safeguarding applications and systems. Adopting best practices for secure coding is not just necessary; it's a responsibility. In this blog post, we'll delve into essential practices developers can implement to strengthen the security of their code.

Thorough Input Validation

Input validation is the first defense against common vulnerabilities like SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS). Continuously validate and sanitize user inputs to ensure they meet expected criteria. Use trusted libraries or frameworks for input validation to minimize human error.

Implement Proper Authentication and Authorization

Authentication verifies the identity of users, while authorization determines their access levels. Use robust authentication methods like multi-factor authentication (MFA) and implement the principle of least privilege to restrict access to only what is necessary for each user.

Secure Password Handling

Hash passwords using strong cryptographic algorithms and add salt to defend against rainbow table attacks. Encourage users to create complex passwords and implement password policies. Avoid storing passwords in plain text or weakly encrypted forms.

Escape Output Data

When rendering data in web pages or APIs, always escape user-generated content to prevent XSS attacks. Escaping ensures that special characters are correctly encoded, making them impossible to execute as code.

Protect Against SQL Injection

Use parameterized queries or prepared statements when interacting with databases. These techniques prevent malicious input from being executed as SQL commands. Avoid dynamically constructing SQL queries with user inputs.

Secure File Uploads

If your application allows file uploads, implement strict controls to ensure that uploaded files cannot be executed as scripts. Store uploaded files in a separate directory with restricted access and use white-listing to validate file types.

Keep Software Dependencies Updated

Outdated libraries and frameworks can contain known vulnerabilities. Regularly update your dependencies and apply security patches promptly. Consider using automated tools to monitor and manage dependencies.

Implement Security Headers

To mitigate various attack vectors, utilize security headers like Content Security Policy (CSP), HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS), and X-Content-Type-Options. These headers provide an additional layer of protection against common threats.

Error Handling and Logging

Implement proper error handling to avoid exposing sensitive information to attackers. Additionally, implement secure logging practices to capture relevant security events and anomalies for analysis.

Data Encryption

Sensitive data should always be encrypted, both in transit and at rest. Use industry-standard encryption protocols like TLS for data in transit and robust encryption algorithms for data at rest.

Regular Security Testing

Incorporate security testing into your development process. Conduct code reviews, static analysis, and dynamic testing to identify vulnerabilities early. Consider leveraging automated security testing tools to streamline the process.

Secure APIs

If your application includes APIs, secure them using authentication, authorization, and rate limiting. Implement OAuth or API keys for access control and monitor API usage for suspicious activity.


Secure coding is not a one-time task; it's an ongoing commitment to protecting your applications and data. Developers can build a robust defense against cyber threats by adhering to these best practices. Remember that security is a shared responsibility, and collaboration between developers, security professionals, and stakeholders is essential to create a secure software ecosystem. Stay vigilant, stay informed, and continue to evolve your secure coding practices to stay one step ahead of potential threats.



Chapman, B., & Maymí, F. (2021). Chapter 9 - Software Assurance Best Practices. In Comptia Cysa+ Cybersecurity Analyst Certification Exam Guide (exam CS0-002). essay, McGraw Hill.


My Cybersecurity Poster that I created for my class homework....


BSIT380 - Week 4 Posting - What is Data Analytics?

Data analytics is a multifaceted field that involves the systematic computational analysis of data or statistics. It is used to discover, interpret, and communicate meaningful patterns in data. This process involves applying algorithms and statistical methods to data sets to determine trends, correlations, and patterns. In simpler terms, data analytics transforms raw data into insights to help make better decisions. This process is crucial in various domains, such as business, science, and technology, as it enables organizations and individuals to make more informed choices based on empirical evidence.

At its core, data analytics is divided into several types, including descriptive, predictive, prescriptive, and diagnostic analytics. Descriptive analytics aims to summarize past data to understand what has happened. Predictive analytics uses statistical models and forecast techniques to understand the future. Prescriptive analytics suggests actions you can take to affect desired outcomes. Diagnostic analytics focuses on discovering the causes of past outcomes. Integrating data analytics into decision-making processes leads to more efficient operations, higher business profits, and improved quality of life, making it a vital tool in today’s data-driven world.